Gönderen: adalarpostasi | 22 Mayıs 2007

ADALAR POSTASI-28: Tesbih Ağaçlari çiçek açti…

ADALAR POSTASI / 25 Mayis 2005

Tesbih Agaçlari çiçek açti!

Ada sokaklarinda insanin adeta aklini basindan alan bir rayiha var su günlerde… Akasya çiçekleri yerlerini Tesbih Agaci (Melia azedarach)’nin o güzel çiçeklerine birakti! Tesbih Agaci deyip geçmeyin; zehirli olan meyvelerinden yapilan konsantrasyonlar, Ege Bölgesi’nde nohutun ana zararlisi olan Nohut Sinegi larvalarina (Liriomyza cicerina) karsi kullanilmaktaymis! Yolunuz Adalar’a düserse eger mutlaka o büyülü rayihanin içinden geçiverin!

Faik Yaltirik- Asuman Efe- Adnan Uzun., Istanbul Adalari’nin Dogal ve Ek(g)zotik Bitkileri, Istanbul (1993)126, res.25b.
Meliaceae Familyasi’ndan
Melia azedarach L. – Tesbih Agaci
Küçük bir agaç veya büyük bir çalidir. Çift katli tüysü olan yapraklari büyüktür. Ilkbahar-yaz aylarinda ortaya çikan küçük ve kokulu çiçekleri salkim durumunda kurullar olusturur. Leylak rengindedir. Sürgünlerde uzun zaman kalabilen ve demetler olusturan meyveleri boncuk gibidir ve sari renklidir. Birçok degisik toprak tiplerine uyum gösterebilir.

http://www.floridata.com/ref/M/meli_aze.cfm
Melia azedarach
Family: Meliaceae (mahogany family)
Common Names: Chinaberry, bead tree, Persian lilac, pride-of-India

Description
Chinaberry is a fast-growing, short-lived tree with a rounded crown that reaches about 50 ft (15.2 m) tall with a 20 ft (6.1 m) spread. The bark is reddish brown, becoming fissured on mature trees. The deciduous leaves are bipinnate (twice feather-like) and 1-2 ft (0.3-0.6 m) long. The individual leaflets, each about 2 in (5.1 cm) long and less than half as wide, are pointed at the tips and have toothed edges. In spring and early summer, Chinaberry produces masses of purplish, fragrant, star shaped flowers, each about 3/4 in (1.9 cm) in diameter, that arch or droop in 8 in (2.4 cm) panicles. They are followed by clusters of spherical, yellow fruits about 3/4 in (1.9 cm) in diameter that persist on the trees even after the leaves have fallen.

Texas umbrella Chinaberry or Texas umbrella tree (M. azedarach cv. ‘Umbraculiformis’) produces upward-arching branches and drooping foliage that make it look like an umbrella. The effect is further enhanced by pollarding, or pruning to a pollard, whereby the tree is cut back to its trunk or to main branches near the trunk. Regrowth then results in a thick cluster of branches all arising from where the cuts were made.

Chinaberry flowers are followed by ornamental berries that mature in autumn.

Location
Native originally to northern India, China and the Himalayas, Chinaberry is planted widely in warm climates as an ornamental and shade tree. For more than 200 years it has been popular in the southern US where it is grown for its attractive flowers and for a quick shade tree. Unfortunately, Chinaberry has escaped and become naturalized in many areas and has become a pest, invading natural plant communities and displacing native species.

Culture
Light: Partial shade to full sun.
Moisture:Tolerates drought.
Hardiness: USDA Zones 7 – 10. Will tolerate some frost.
Propagation:Seeds will germinate as soon as they are ripe.

Mature
Chinaberry trees like this one are prone to dropping limbs and generally creating a mess (and endangering nearby structures).

Usage
Chinaberry is a tough survivor and is sometimes planted as a street tree. In the Deep South Chinaberry trees are traditionally planted in the yard where they are thought to bring good luck. Homeowners liked the showy lavender flowers in spring and the cool shade provided on hot summer days. Unfortunately the tree reseeds itself handily and also provided the homeowner with quantities of unwanted seedlings that require effort to control.

Features
The shiny, hard seeds are used as beads and for rosaries. Extracts from the bark and fruit have pharmacological properties and are used in China to kill parasitic roundworms.

WARNING
Chinaberry is listed as a Category I species by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. This means that Chinaberry is invading and disrupting natural communities in Florida. It also is reported to be invasive and disruptive in 11 other states, including Hawaii and Texas. Chinaberry seeds are readily dispersed by birds and a single tree in your yard can cause a thicket of Chinaberry trees that shade out native species in the woods around your property. If you have a Chinaberry tree on your property you should cut it down so that birds will not disperse the seeds, and you should encourage others to eliminate this invasive exotic from the landscape.

All parts of Chinaberry tree are poisonous. Eating as few as 6 berries can result in death. Birds (including mockingbirds, robins, and catbirds) that eat too many seeds have been known to become paralyzed.

http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Meliaaz.htm
Common Name: Chinaberry, China tree, Chinaball tree

TOXIC ONLY IF LARGE QUANTITIES EATEN.

Characteristics

Family: Meliaceae
Plant Description: Deciduous tree; leaves alternate, 2-pinnately divided with toothed, pointed leaflets; flowers small but numerous in large terminal clusters, lilac-colored; fruit a yellowish, wrinkled drupe persisting through the winter.
Origin: Asia.
Distribution: Cultivated and naturalized.
Where Found: Weedy in disturbed areas; naturalized at edges of roads, in openings in forests and natural areas; in landscape used as an ornamental tree.
Mode: Ingestion.
Poisonous Part: Fruits and tea from leaves.
Symptoms: Stomach irritation, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, paralysis, irregular breathing, and respiratory distress.
Toxic Principle: Tetranortriterpene neurotoxins; also possibly a saponin.
Severity: TOXIC ONLY IF LARGE QUANTITIES EATEN.

http://www.geocities.com/nyasarakinci/nil/melia.htm
Melia azedarach L. tohumu ekstraktının Liriomyza cicerina (Rond.)
(Diptera : Agromyzidae ) larvalarına kar?ı insektisit etkisi üzerinde ara?tırmalar
Pervin HINCAL Nilgün YA?ARAKINCI Bahriye HEPDURGUN
Ege Bölgesinde nohutun ana zararlısı olan Liriomyza cicerina (Rond.) (Diptera: Agromyzidae)’nin larvaları yaprakçıklarda galeri açarak zarar yapar ve yaprakların dökülmesine neden olur. Bu çalı?ma ile Melia azedarach tohumu ekstraktının, hazırlanan de?i?ik konsantrasyonlarda (1 kg, 2 kg, 3 kg ve 4 kg tohum/10 l su) Liriomyza cicerina (Rond.) larvalarına insektisit etkisi ara?tırılmı?tır. Denemeler 1996 yılında U?ak-Merkez (Bölme)’de, 1997 yılında ise Denizli-Tavas (Medet)’da tesadüf blokları deneme desenine göre 4 karakter ve 4 tekerrürlü olarak açılmı?tır. Sayımlar, her parselden tesadüfen seçilen 25 bitkideki galerili 25 yaprakta (toplam 250 yaprakçıkta) canlı larva üzerinden yapılmı?tır. Denemelerin sonucunda 3 kg ve 4 kg tohum/10 l su konsantrasyonlarının, ilk ergin ve larvalar görüldü?ünde yapılan uygulamada, nohut sine?i larvalarına kar?ı 15 gün, ortalama %72.20 ve %77.99 oranlarında etkili oldu?u saptanmı?tır

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